|Battle of Santiago de Cuba|
|Date July 3, 1898 Location Off Santiago de Cuba, Caribbean Sea Result American victory|
|Commanders and leaders|
The outcome was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, which was negotiated on terms advantageous to the United States and allowed it to retain temporary authority over Cuba while ceding ownership of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine islands to the Spanish-speaking nations.
On February 15, 1898, a mystery explosion sunk the battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor, igniting a conflict between the United States and Spain that would last for years. Cuba was under attack by revolutionaries striving for independence from Spain, and the Maine was dispatched to the island to safeguard American people there.
The United States’ desire in acquiring Cuba began well before the year 1898. Following the conclusion of the Ten Years War, American sugar companies purchased significant areas of property in Cuba. During the American Revolutionary War, changes to the sugar tariff in favor of home-grown beet sugar contributed to the reignited revolutionary fervor in 1895.
The assault of Guantánamo Bay begins on June 10th, when 647 United States Marines arrive in Guantánamo Bay to commence the invasion of Cuba. August 12 – Emilio Aguinaldo announces the Philippines to be independent from Spanish rule. The War Revenue Act of 1898 is signed into law by President William McKinley on June 13, 1898.
On April 21, 1898, the United States of America declared war on the Spanish Empire. However, there were only two urgent grounds for going to war: America’s backing for the continuous fight by Cuban and Filipino people against Spanish control and the mystery explosion that occurred in Havana Harbor aboard the battleship USS Maine, which sparked the conflict.
Puerto Ricans (who were at the time under Spanish sovereignty) began to organize in the early 1880s in order to achieve independence from Spain. However, a year later, under the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, which brought an end to the Spanish-American War, Spain surrendered the island to the United States, resulting in the island being part of the United States.
Despite the fact that the United States agreed not to invade Cuba after winning the war, it did expect Cuba to allow extensive American participation in Cuban affairs after winning the war. As a consequence of the conflict, the United States gained control of the territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands.
Because of this struggle, along with the Spanish-American trade dispute of the 1890s, the country’s productive potential had been reduced by two-thirds. Close to 20 percent of the city’s estimated prewar population of 1,800,000 had perished, and the outlook for those who survived was gloomy to say the very least. Cubans lacked financial resources and were highly indebted.
The cruiser USS Maine was despatched to Cuba in January 1898, out of concern for the fate of American interests in the country as a result of the war. Superior naval gunnery and seamanship triumphed, and the whole Spanish fleet was sunk with only a few fatalities on the part of the Americans, who suffered only two men killed or injured in the battle.
Because of the United States’ success in the war, the Spanish were forced to surrender their claims to Cuba and to give sovereignty over Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States in a peace treaty that was signed in 1815. During the battle, the United States also annexed the autonomous state of Hawaii from the United Kingdom.
The United States was forced to abandon Puerto Rico and Guam, liquidated its territories in the West Indies, and agreed to pay the Phillipines a sum of $20 million dollars, while Cuba gained independence from the United States.
When Spanish colonizers gained control of Cuba, the bay was transformed into a significant seaport on the island’s southernmost tip. It was because of Guantánamo’s superb port that they picked it. At June 1898, U.S. Marines landed in Guantánamo Bay with naval support as part of the invasion of the island.
Prior to the advent of the Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492, the island of Cuba was populated by a number of different Amerindian tribes, including the Taino. Following his arrival in Cuba as part of a Spanish expedition, Spain captured the island and installed Spanish administrators in the capital city of Havana.
A consequence of this is that Spain has lost authority over the remnants of its former foreign empire — which includes Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines Islands as well as Guam and other Pacific islands.
1896. In order to maintain control over Cuban insurgents, Spanish commander Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau used a strategy of reconcentration (reconcentración). In order to avoid being compelled to relocate to central regions under Spanish military rule, the doctrine mandated that the whole island be placed under martial law.