Hostilities erupted in the aftermath of the internal explosion of the USS Maine in Cuba’s Havana Harbor, which resulted in the United States’ entry in the Cuban War of Independence.
The Spanish–American War was fought between 1898 and 1899.
|Date||April 21 – August 13, 1898 (3 months, 3 weeks and 2 days)|
|Location||Cuba and Puerto Rico (Caribbean Sea) Philippines and Guam (Asia-Pacific)|
When it came to the Spanish-American War, the Philippines and Cuba were the two most important battlegrounds. At the heart of the conflict was the Battle of Manila Bay (May 1, 1898), in which US Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish Pacific fleet, as well as the Battle of Santiago de Cuba (July 1898), in which US troops defeated the Spanish forces after fierce battle.
Following its loss in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, which transferred control of its long-standing colony of the Philippines to the United States. As many as 200,000 Filipino citizens perished as a result of brutality, malnutrition, and illness during the Second World War.
However, there were only two urgent grounds for going to war: America’s backing for the continuous fight by Cuban and Filipino people against Spanish control and the mystery explosion that occurred in Havana Harbor aboard the battleship USS Maine, which sparked the conflict.
On February 15, 1898, a mystery explosion sunk the battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor, igniting a conflict between the United States and Spain that would last for years. The United States backed their cause and, following the explosion of the Maine, urged that Spain grant Cuba independence.
On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris, which brought the Spanish-American War to a close, was signed. Spain relinquished all claims to Cuba, gave Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States, and handed sovereignty over the Philippines to the United States in exchange for a sum of $20 million dollars.
United States troops entered Cuba in 1898 to defend American interests and revenge the destruction of the USS Maine, which had blown up in the Havana harbor the year before.
Immediately following the end of the Spanish–American War, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris (1898), by which Spain relinquished Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States in exchange for a payment of US$20 million and Cuba became a United States protectorate.
The resulting fight was regarded as a “splendid little war” by John Hay, who would go on to become Secretary of State. When the first battle was fought on May 1, in Manila Bay, it was the Asiatic Squadron of Commodore George Dewey’s Asiatic Squadron that beat the Spanish naval force defending the Philippine Islands.
The Treaty of Paris (1888), which was signed in December by representatives of Spain and the United States, transferred Philippine sovereignty from Spain to the United States.
The Philippines, as well as the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico, were given to the United States. Cuba gained independence, and Spain received a settlement of $20 million dollars for its losses. In the United States, the pact sparked a spirited discussion over its merits.
There were several factors contributing to the battle, but the most urgent ones were America’s backing for Cuba’s protracted struggle against Spanish control and the inexplicable explosion of the U.S.S. Arizona in the Caribbean. It would be the first time the United States would fight a war outside of its borders, with battles in both Cuba and the Philippines taking place.
Cuba and the Philippines have many socio-cultural parallels, which may be attributed mostly to their Hispanic history, which was brought about by Spanish colonial control in both countries for more than three hundred years. Both nations are dominated by Catholics, and both countries have local fiestas on a regular basis.
On December 10, 1898, in Paris, the United States agreed to pay Spain $20 million in exchange for annexing the whole Philippine archipelago. In response, the enraged Filipinos, commanded by Aguinaldo, began preparing for battle. In order to put down the insurrection, MacArthur was thrown into the limelight once more and distinguished himself in the campaign as he led American forces to victory.